Polytechnic University of Valencia Congress, ILASS2017 - 28th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems

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High Speed Shadowgraphy of Transparent Nozzles as an Evaluation Tool for In-Nozzle Cavitation Behavior of GDI Injectors
Dmitrii Mamaikin, Tobias Knorsch, Philipp Rogler, Philippe Leick, Michael Wensing

Last modified: 18-07-2017


Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) systems have become a rapidly developing technology taking up a considerableand rapidly growing share in the Gasoline Engine market due to the thermodynamic advantages of direct injection. The process of spray formation and propagation from a fuel injector is very crucial in optimizing the air-fuel mixture of DI engines. Previous studies have shown that the presence of some cavitation in high-pressure fuel nozzles can lead to better atomization of the fluid. However, under some very specific circumstances, high levels of cavitation can also delay the atomization process; spray stabilization due to hydraulic flip is the most well-known example. Therefore, a better understanding of cavitation behavior is of vital importance for further optimization of next generation fuel injectors.

In contrast to the abundance of investigations conducted on the inner flow and cavitation patterns of diesel injectors, corresponding in-depth research on the inner flow of gasoline direct-injection nozzles is still relatively scarce. In this study, the results of an experiment performed on real-size GDI injector nozzles made of acrylic glass are presented. The inner flow of the nozzle is visualized using a high-power pulsed laser, a long-distance microscope and a high- speed camera. The ambiguity of dark areas on the images, which may represent cavitation regions as well as ambient air drawn into the nozzle holes, is resolved by injecting the fuel both into a fuel or gas filled environment. In addition, the influence of backpressure on the transient flow characteristics of the internal flow is investigated. In good agreement with observations made in previous studies, higher backpressure levels decrease the amount of cavitation inside the nozzles. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution of the experiment, the transient cavitation behavior during the opening, quasi-steady and closing phases of the injector needle motion can be analyzed. For example, it is found that cavitation patterns oscillate with a characteristic frequency that depends on the backpressure. The link between cavitation and air drawn into the nozzle at the beginning of injection is alsorevealed.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/ILASS2017.2017.4639

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