Polytechnic University of Valencia Congress, ILASS2017 - 28th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems

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Experimental study of liquid-vapor mass transfer in non-reacting and reacting droplet chains
Michael Stöhr, Stefanie Werner, Wolfgang Meier

Last modified: 18-07-2017


The dynamics of liquid-vapor mass transfer largely determines the performance of internal and gas turbine spraycombustors. The key mechanisms however typically take place on small spatial scales of less than 100 μm which have been difficult to measure. The present work thus aims at the development and application of an experimental technique for the characterization of droplet evaporation with high spatial resolution. Single chains of monodisperse acetone droplets with diameters of 125 and 225 μm are injected into a channel with a cross-section of 60x60 mm² and quartz glass side walls for optical access. The droplet chains are surrounded by a laminar air flow with velocity and temperature of about 0.1 m/s and 300 K, respectively. The distribution of acetone vapor around the droplets is measured using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) excited by the 4th harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. The measurements are performed in thin transversal sections between the droplets in order to avoid signal corruption by halation effects that occur when the laser directly hits the droplets as reported in previous studies. In addition, the spatial resolution of the PLIF setup was enhanced by using proper sheet- forming and imaging optics. The resulting in-plane resolution and out-plane-resolution (i.e. thickness of the laser sheet) are both determined to about 20 μm, which thus allows an accurate characterization of the small-scale vapor distribution near the droplets. Using a separate calibration measurement, quantitative acetone concentrations are obtained for non-reacting conditions. As a complementary technique, the droplet evaporation is measured using shadowgraphy droplet sizing. Both non-reacting and reacting droplet chains are studied. The results for the non-reacting cases show that the droplet chains are surrounded by a column of nearly-saturated acetone vapor with a concentration maximum at the centerline. For increasing radial distances, the vapor concentration decays quickly with a half width of 0.5 mm and reaches almost zero for r>1 mm. It is further seen that the width of the vapor column increases with streamwise distance. For the experiment with a reacting droplet chain, which is continuously ignited by a heating wire at the channel inlet, a cylindrical reaction zone around the chain with a radius of about 1.5 mm is observed. The shadowgraphy measurements show that the rate of droplet evaporation is significantly enhanced for the reacting conditions. This is attributed to the high rate of heat transfer from the flame to the droplets and the resulting enhanced acetone mass transfer to the sink at the reaction zone.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/ILASS2017.2017.4767

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